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La province au fil du temps

1400

1497

Giovanni Caboto takes possession of an island named New Found Land on behalf of King Henry IV of England

1500

1504

The first known crossing by a French fishing vessel is made to Newfoundland

1534

Jacques Cartier takes possession of the territory on behalf of King François I of France by planting a cross in Gaspé

1600

1605

The first permanent French colony is founded in Acadia, in Port Royal, on the shores of present-day Bay of Fundy

1608

The City of Quebec is founded

1610

The young Français Étienne Brûlé is the first European to set foot in what is now Ontario

1615

Samuel de Champlain travels to Huronia, Huron-Wendat country, in the middle of what is now Ontario

1631

The first Acadian settlement is built in what is now New Brunswick, at the mouth of the Saint John River

1639

The Augustinians and Ursulines arrive in Quebec City

Details

1639

The Sainte-Marie among the Hurons Jesuit mission is built in Huron-Wendat country, on the shores of Georgian Bay, near what is now the city of Midland

Details

1642

Ville-Marie (Montreal) is founded

1653

Pubnico is founded in the northwestern part of what is now Nova Scotia

Details

1662

A small fort is erected in Placentia, the first true French colony in Newfoundland

Details

1673

Fort Frontenac is built in Kingston, on Lake Ontario

1682

Radisson and Des Groseillers found a trading post on the Nelson River, on the shores of Hudson Bay, which becomes the largest Hudson’s Bay Company trading post

1690

The English attack Placentia

1690

The first cheese production is documented in Île d’Orléans, a cheese still available today

Details

1696

1696 - 1697

Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville and his military men attack the island’s English fishing villages

1700

1701

The Great Peace of Montreal is signed in Montreal between the French and their Aboriginal allies from the Great Lakes

1701

The city of Detroit is founded, whose expansion on the north bank of the Detroit River would later become the city of Windsor

1713

Newfoundland becomes England’s possession upon signature of the Treaty of Utrecht

1713

After the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht, France finally cedes Acadia (currently the province of Nova Scotia, excluding Cape Breton Island) to the British

1713

France finally cedes Acadia (located at the time in what is now Nova Scotia) to the British

1720

A contingent of 300 Frenchmen land on Saint-Jean Island—later Prince Edward Island—to settle permanently; they erect a port at Port-la-Joye

Details

1731

Pierre Gaultier de la Vérendrye begins exploring Western Canada from the Kaministiquia fur trading post, today Thunder Bay

1734

The French reach Lake Winnipeg for the first time at the instigation of La Vérendrye

1735

More than a third of the 432 inhabitants of Saint-Jean Island have an Acadian background

1738

The first fort, Fort Rouge, is built on the site of what is now the city of Winnipeg

1740

The Forges du Saint-Maurice begin operating in the Trois-Rivières region

Details

1749

The British found the city of Halifax

1750

Approximately 5,000 Acadians take refuge in what is now New Brunswick, hoping to escape the British threat

1750

Fort Bourbon is built, opening the way to the Rocky Mountains through the Saskatchewan River

1750

The French build a fort, Fort La Biche, facing the Rocky Mountains

1753

Chevalier de La Corne builds the first French fort on the territory that is now Saskatchewan and for the first time sows wheat in the Canadian Prairies

1754

Hudson’s Bay Company employee Anthony Henday makes it to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, in what is now Alberta

1755

1755 - 1763

Over 11,000 Acadians are deported, more than half of whom lived in what is now Nova Scotia

1755

1755 - 1763

Over 11,000 Acadians are deported, including the majority of those who took refuge in New Brunswick

1756

Approximately 5,000 Acadians take refuge on Saint-Jean Island, hoping to escape Deportation, which began in 1755 on territory that is now Nova Scotia

1758

The British conquer Saint-Jean Island and deport roughly 3,000 of its inhabitants; others manage to flee

1759

The British army under Wolfe’s command defeats the French forces under Montcalm’s command on the Plains of Abraham, a defeat that puts an end to New France

1760

1760 - 1780

The first Acadians arrive in the region of Port-au-Port

Details

1763

France cedes all of its North American colonies to the British under the Treaty of Paris

1764

Acadians can again settle in the colony of Nova Scotia, but only in small groups

1764

Acadians are authorized to settle on territory that is now New Brunswick

1768

Two hundred Acadians return to settle on Saint John Island (formerly Saint Jean)

1770

Jacques Beaulieu, an independent trader born in what is now the province of Quebec, settles in the Great Slave Lake region

1774

The Quebec Act grants inhabitants of the former New France the right to practise the Catholic religion, teach French and keep their properties

1774

The first Hudson’s Bay Company fort is built in what is now Saskatchewan, near French territory, on the Saskatchewan River

1778

The North West Company builds the first trading post on the Athabasca River

1782

Acadians settle in the Chéticamp region, on Cape Breton Island

Details

1784

The colony of New Brunswick is founded

1787

The North West Company erects Fort Espérance on the Qu’Appelle River, in the southern part of Saskatchewan

1789

Acadians gain the right to vote in the colony of Nova Scotia

1791

The British colony is split in two: the mostly Francophone Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the mostly Anglophone Upper Canada (now Ontario)

1792

The first deliberative assembly of Lower Canada is established

1793

Six Francophones accompany explorer Alexander Mackenzie on his historic journey from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean

1793

François Beaulieu, son of Jacques Beaulieu and his wife Chipewyan, take part in Alexander Mackenzie’s expedition to the Pacific; he is also the chief of the Yellowknives Nation

1795

The North West and Hudson’s Bay Companies each open a trading post where the current city of Edmonton is located

1798

The North West Company builds the first trading post in the northern part of British Columbia

1799

Saint John Island is renamed Prince Edward Island and becomes a colony separate from Nova Scotia

1800

1800

Many French-Canadian travellers from the North West Company marry Aboriginal women, leading to the creation of the Métis Nation

1800

The North West Company, whose employees are mostly Francophone, dominates the fur trade in the Prairies

1800

1800 - 1900

The number of Francophone Métis families with the last names Beaulieu, Lamoureux, Laferté, Desjarlais, Mandeville, Prud’homme, Giroux, Deschambeault, Sabourin and others is very high in the Northwest Territories

1806

Fort St. James is built near what is now the city of Prince George

Details

1816

The Battle of Seven Oaks, between North West Company and Hudson’s Bay Company rivals, is an event that founds the Métis peoples of the Red River

1818

The first wooden church is built by Abbot Norbert Provencher, the first missionary posted to the Red River colony (now Winnipeg)

Details

1820

North West Company employees are mostly Francophone; this is the only fur trading company in what is now British Columbia

1821

After a period of heated rivalry, the Hudson’s Bay Company acquires the North West Company

1821

The Hudson’s Bay Company takes over its great fur trade rival, the North West Company

1821

The Hudson’s Bay Company takes over the North West Company

1824

1824 - 1829

Montreal’s Notre-Dame Basilica is built

Details

1826

1826 - 1832

The Rideau Canal connecting Ottawa (Ottawa River) to Kingston (Lake Ontario) is built

1837

1837 - 1838

The Patriots’ War is fought

1840

Lower Canada and Upper Canada are united into the Province of Canada, where English is the only official language

1840

Modeste Demers, a Francophone born in Lower Canada, is the first missionary and the first bishop to work on the territory of British Columbia, in Victoria

1840

French Canadians and Métis accompany Robert Campbell in exploring the Yukon and Pelly Rivers

1842

The first Francophone missionaries arrive in Fort Edmonton

1847

Bonsecours Market opens in Montreal

Details

1848

A bilingual college is founded in Bytown, the future city of Ottawa; the college would later become the University of Ottawa

1849

French is again recognized as an official language of the united Canada

1849

The California Gold Rush begins

1852

The Oblates of Mary Immaculate set up a mission at Lac La Biche

Details

1854

Collège de Saint-Boniface opens (in what is now Winnipeg)

1858

Two scientific expeditions conclude that the vast lands of the Prairies are suitable for agriculture

1858

The gold rush on the territory that is now British Columbia causes the population to explode and puts Francophones in a minority situation

1858

The Sisters of Saint Ann, in Montreal, arrive in Victoria and establish the city’s first school, St. Ann’s Academy

Details

1858

The first missionaries, many of them Francophone, arrive in the Northwest Territories

1859

The first lighthouse is built at Pointe-au-Père to make navigation easier in the St. Lawrence Estuary

Details

1859

1859 - 1866

The Parliament of Canada is built in Ottawa

Details

1860

French Canadians and Francophone Métis make up the majority of the population of European origin on territory that is now Alberta

1860

Charles Pandosy, an Oblate born in Marseille, founds a mission in the Okanagan Valley, near where Kelowna is today; he introduces fruit and livestock farming to the area

Details

1867

Nova Scotia becomes one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation (with Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick)

1867

Quebec becomes one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation (with Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick)

1867

Ontario becomes one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation (with Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick)

1869

The Métis, united behind Louis Riel, block Lieutenant-Governor William McDougall’s passage at St. Norbert to protect their lands

Details

1869

The Government of Canada buys private land from the Hudson’s Bay Company—Rupert Land—which at the time extended across all of what is now Canada west of Ontario

1869

The Government of Canada buys private land from the Hudson’s Bay Company—Rupert Land—which at the time extended across all of what is now Canada west of Ontario

1870

An interim government is established by Louis Riel

1870

Manitoba joins the Confederation of Canada

1871

British Columbia becomes a province of the Canadian Confederation

1872

The first inhabitants of Métis origin settle along the Rat River, around what is today the village of Saint-Pierre-Jolys

Details

1873

Prince Edward Island joins Canadian Confederation

1873

The North-West Mounted Police is created

1874

François-Xavier-Mercier, a French Canadian who dominated the fur trade in Alaska and Yukon, founds Fort Reliance, near what is now the city of Dawson

1875

Hundreds of Métis leave the territory of what is today Manitoba and head west to preserve their way of life

1875

Hundreds of Métis leave the territory of what is today Manitoba and head west to preserve their way of life

1876

Canada passes the Indian Act, which seeks to assimilate Aboriginal First Nations to the Euro-Canadian majority

1880

1880 - 1890

The Catholic clergy recruits 620 Francophone families who settled in Edmonton, Calgary and the regions of Lac La Biche and Peace River

1880

1880 - 1890

The Oblates, the Grey Nuns and other Francophone female congregations open a number of schools and hospitals in Alberta

1880

The first Klondike gold veins are discovered near Fort Reliance

1881

The first National Acadian Convention brings together Acadians from the three Maritime provinces; August 15 is declared National Acadian Day

1881

The first National Acadian Convention brings together Acadians from the three Maritime provinces in Memramcook; August 15 is declared National Acadian Day

1881

The first National Acadian Convention brings together Acadians from the three Maritime provinces; August 15 is declared National Acadian Day

1883

The original Fort William (formerly Kaministiquia at the time of New France) is closed for good; today it stands rebuilt on the outskirts of Thunder Bay

Details

1883

The first residential school is opened for Aboriginal children

1884

At the second National Acadian Convention, the delegates choose an Acadian flag and national anthem

1884

At the second National Acadian Convention, the delegates choose an Acadian flag and national anthem

1884

At the second National Acadian Convention, held in Miscouche, on the Island, the delegates choose an Acadian flag and national anthem

1884

The Parliament of the province of Quebec is inaugurated in the City of Quebec

Details

1885

The first Canadian provincial park, Queen Victoria Park, overlooking Niagara Falls, is created

Details

1885

Louis Riel is hanged for high treason after the Métis revolt of Batoche

1885

The Métis, headed by Gabriel Dumont and Louis Riel, revolt at Batoche to have their rights respected; they are defeated by the Canadian armed forces

Details

1885

Louis Riel, the leader of the Métis, is sentenced for high treason and is hanged in Regina

1890

The private higher education Sainte-Anne college is established, later becoming the University of Sainte-Anne, the only Francophone university in Nova Scotia

Details

1890

The Government of Manitoba decrees English as the province’s only official language

1890

Mass immigration by mostly Anglophone settlers takes place, partly offset by the recruitment of a minority of Francophone settlers

1890

Mass immigration by mostly Anglophone settlers takes place, partly offset by the recruitment of a minority of Francophone settlers

1894

The first edition of the Quebec City Winter Carnival is held

Details

1894

The Métis and French Canadians create the Association Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Boniface

1894

Émilie Tremblay settles in Yukon after pioneering the Chilkoot Trail

Details

1896

The Pulperie de Chicoutimi is founded

Details

1896

The Francophone Métis village of Saint-Paul-des-Métis is created

1896

Joseph Ladue, a French American, founds the city of Dawson

1896

1896 - 1900

Thirty thousand people take part in the Klondike gold rush; 10% of them are Francophones

1897

Monument-Lefebvre, a pavilion of St. Joseph’s College in Memramcook—a bilingual university since 1888—is unveiled

Details

1898

The Government of Canada separates Yukon from the Northwest Territories to better manage the influx of gold diggers

1899

The unofficial name of the Francophone village of Rouleauville is formally incorporated

Details

1900

1900

Fewer than 1,000 bison are left in the North American prairies

1902

The Société historique de Saint-Boniface is created

1904

Captain Joseph-Elzéar Bernier takes possession of the Arctic on behalf of Canada at Île Melville

Details

1905

Saskatchewan becomes a province of the Canadian Confederation

1905

Alberta becomes a province of the Canadian Confederation

1905

1905 - 1920

The large influx of mostly British immigrants puts Francophones in a significant minority situation in Alberta

1908

Canada buys 400 bison from the last herd still roaming free in Montana; they are the ancestors of all the bison that live in the Canadian Prairies today

Details

1909

Approximately 400 people, French Canadian workers and their families, settle in Maillardville, not far from Vancouver

Details

1910

The Oblates establish Collège Saint-Jean in Edmonton, which would become Campus Saint-Jean of the University of Alberta

1912

Regulation 17 prohibits French to be taught beyond Grade 2 in Ontario

1913

The Jesuits found Collège Sacré-Cœur in Sudbury, a Francophone college that would become the University of Sudbury in 1957

1916

French-language education is forbidden by the Government of Manitoba

1919

Mathieu de Gravelbourg classical college is founded

1923

Acadians create the first fishermen’s association in Tignish

1925

The Théâtre Cercle Molière is created in St. Boniface (Winnipeg)

Details

1926

The Association canadienne-française de l’Alberta is created

1927

Regulation 17 is repealed

1928

The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada designates the Louisbourg ruins on Cape Breton Island a National Historic Site of Canada

Details

1930

After a long prohibition period, provincial authorities grant Acadians the right to teach in French up to Grade 6

1930

The monumental Gravelbourg church, built in 1919 under Abbot Louis-Pierre Gravel, becomes a cathedral

Details

1931

Acadians account for one-third of New Brunswick’s population

1942

The provincial government recognizes the Mathieu de Gravelbourg classical college

1945

The Fédération des francophones de Colombie-Britannique is founded

1949

Newfoundland is the last province to join the Canadian Confederation (it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001)

1949

A Francophone radio station is opened, an important development tool for the Francophone community

1960

An Acadian premier, Louis J. Robichaud, is elected for the first time as head of the provincial government

1960

The Quiet Revolution begins, a period of accelerated modernization in Quebec

1960

1960 - 1970

Many Francophones occupy positions in administration, education and health, particularly in Frobisher Bay, in what is now Iqaluit

1963

The first edition of the Festival acadien de Caraquet is held

Details

1963

The University of Moncton is established

Details

1964

The Association of the Acadian Museum is created in Miscouche

Details

1967

Expo 67 is held in Montreal, an international landmark event

1967

The Théâtre français de Toronto is founded under the name “Théâtre du P’tit Bonheur”

Details

1967

French is again allowed to be taught in public schools part time

1968

The Ontario government agrees to fund free French-language public secondary schools

1968

Bilingual public schools appear under pressure from Francophone parents

1969

The provincial government tests a French immersion program in a single school

1970

A major identity and cultural awareness movement transforms Ontario’s French Canadians into Franco Ontarians

1970

The first edition of the Festival des Voyageurs is held

Details

1971

Antonine Maillet writes her famous theatre play for a character named La Sagouine

1977

The Acadian Historical Village opens in Caraquet

Details

1977

The restoration and revitalization of the Du Petit-Champlain Street in Quebec City begins

Details

1977

The Franco-Ontarian flag is adopted

1977

An entirely Francophone school curriculum is introduced

1978

The first Franco-Ténoise organization is established

1979

After Georges Forest wins his case before the Supreme Court of Canada, the Act of 1890 that made English the only official language is declared unconstitutional

1979

The Fransaskois flag is adopted

1980

The first referendum on the sovereignty of Quebec is held; the people choose to stay in Canada

1980

The Franco-Manitoban flag is adopted

1981

French can now be taught anywhere the population warrants it

1981

The Association francophone de Frobisher Bay is founded

1982

The equality of both of the province’s language communities (English and French) is officially included in the Canadian Constitution

1982

The rights of the Métis are recognized in the Canadian Constitution

1982

The Franco-Albertan flag is adopted

1982

The Franco-Columbian flag is adopted

1982

The Association franco-yukonnaise is incorporated

Details

1983

The Centre d’histoire de Montréal opens

Details

1983

Semaine francophone is created, later becoming Franco-Fête de la Communauté urbaine de Toronto in 1995

Details

1984

The first Francophone school opens in La Grand’Terre, on the Port-au-Port Peninsula

1984

The first Francophone Catholic school, École Saint-Antoine, is opened in Calgary

1985

UNESCO adds the Historic District of Old Québec to its prestigious World Heritage List

Details

1985

La Troupe du Jour is created in Saskatoon

Details

1985

The Franco-Yukonnais flag is adopted

1985

The Association franco-culturelle de Yellowknife is created

Details

1986

The Franco-Newfoundland and Labrador flag is adopted

1988

Francophones are given the power to manage the province’s network of Francophone schools

1989

A French-as-a-first-language education program is introduced

1990

The province’s first Francophone school board is created

1990

Ice cider is invented in Quebec

Details

1990

Franco-Albertans are granted the right to manage an entirely Francophone school system

1990

The first edition of the Festival du bois de Maillardville is held

1991

The population of Yukon climbs back up to the gold rush peak

1992

Pays de la Sagouine opens in Bouctouche

Details

1992

The Franco-Ténois flag is adopted

1993

The Centre culturel Aberdeen is founded in Moncton

Details

1993

The first French-as-a-mother-tongue education program is introduced

1994

The heritage route called French Ancestors Route on the Port au Port Peninsula is inaugurated

1994

The Division scolaire franco-manitobaine is created

1995

Collège Boréal opens in Sudbury

1996

The Commission scolaire francophone du Yukon is created

1997

Cité francophone d’Edmonton opens

Details

1997

The organization Canadian Parents for French, which promotes French immersion schools, is created

1997

The Association des francophones de l’actuel territoire du Nunavut is founded

1998

Franco-Ontarians are granted management of the 12 Francophone school boards overseeing all their elementary and secondary schools

1999

May 30 becomes Provincial Francophonie Day

1999

A Francophone school board is granted jurisdiction over all of British Columbia

1999

The Francophone École Allain St-Cyr school opens in Yellowknife

1999

The territory of Nunavut is created from the north and east portions of the Northwest Territories, where Inuit account for 85% of the population

2000

2001

Francophone community radio Radio-Taïga hits the airwaves

2001

The Francophone École des Trois-Soleils school is built in Iqaluit

Details

2002

The first edition of the Calgary Maple Festival is held

Details

2002

The Franco-Nunavois flag is adopted

2003

The Commission scolaire francophone du Nunavut is established

2004

Legislation on French-language services is passed by the provincial government

2004

Centre francophone de Toronto is founded

Details

2007

A Francophone provincial school division consisting of 12 schools is created

2008

A monument commemorating the deportation of 3,100 civilians is erected at Port la-Joye–Fort Amherst

2012

UNESCO adds the Landscape of Grand-Pré to its prestigious World Heritage List

Details

2014

Ice canoeing on the St. Lawrence River is designated as intangible cultural heritage

2014

The Canadian Museum for Human Rights is unveiled in Winnipeg

Details

2014

Alberta’s 200 French immersion schools have some 40,000 students